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dossier

Popular music studies

 





  Collected essays on the study and analysis of popular music
  Editor: Ger Tillekens
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English Roy Orbison's MGM years revisited (april 2016). Twelve years ago René de Bruin wrote an article for our journal about Roy Orbison's MGM catalogue. At that time he expected a speedy arrival of a remastered CD-box. He had to wait till the end of last year. The results, however, surpass his wildest expectations, as a brilliantly remastered LP- and CD-set now rewrites Orbison's recording history for the years between 1965 and 1973.
English Plagiarism or inspiration? (september 2015). Some songs closely resemble one another. But, when can we say that the similarities are coincidental, come down to plagiarism or to something in between that may be labelled 'inspiration'? Adding about a dozen songs to some well-known cases, Denes Pinter here unfolds a critical approach to judge alleged plagiarism in popular music.
English There's a new key in town (march 2015). The musical idiom of Rock music leaves ample room for original and unexpected modulations. Douglas S. Thompson here discusses the outstanding example of the Eagles' song "New Kid in Town." In this song, tonality — while avoiding the typical modulation in the bridge section — cleverly switches from section to section in ways that strengthen and enhance the song's cohesiveness.
English Ticketmaster and the economy of live musical performance (november 2012). In the United States, Ticketmaster is the largest ticket distributor for concerts and venues, coming out as a winner in the increasing concentration of ownership in the market of live music performance — a market that by now surpasses the market for recorded music. All in all, we see an ever-narrowing network of music labels, combined with synergistic control and ownership over the means of ticket distribution, which limits points of access to venues and promotion agencies. Against this background Kristine Weglarz analyzes the anti-trust complaint brought in 1994 by Pearl Jam against Ticketmaster, and discusses the theoretical implications and proposed solutions.
English As distant and close as can be (october 2012). Nowadays most popular music is directly made in recording studio's. Yet, both the producers and musicians still hold to the illusion that a sound recording has to reproduce what a listener should experience under optimal conditions in a real-life setting. Recorded music, as is said, should adhere to the established standards of high-fidelity: "hi-fi." By keeping to these standards, the studio itself has become a non-place, a place of transience like a parking place or an airport. Lo-fi artists deliberately counter this concept by recording under poor conditons and adding noise to their productions. In the end, however, as Melle Jan Kromhout here argues, even they cannot escape the fact that the technique of recording has severed the direct link between the musician and his audience.
English On the perception of the tonal centre in an ambiguous tonal environment (august 2012). Song-writers working in the genre of Prog-Rock often excel in creating ambiguous tonal environments where the tonal centre is kept volatile for some length or may repeatedly shift within the space of a only few measures. How do their listeners affirm and perceive these transformations of the tonal centre, and, if so, to which extent? To answer this question Filip Tailor here presents the results of an empirical study in the field of tonal perception.
Dutch Word je met Donkey Konga een betere muzikant? (oktober 2010). Kan de spelcomputer behulpzaam zijn bij de ontwikkeling van het muzikale gevoel? Met die vraag in het achterhoofd bekijkt Tom Langhorst hier kritisch het Nintendo-spel Donkey Konga, waarin de speler mee kan drummen met bekende popsongs.
Dutch Een muzikale dagkalender van de jaren zeventig (maart 2010). Popkenners Ton van Draanen en Tom Blomberg vertaalden de informatie op hun website naar een rijk geïllustreerd boek. Daarin kan de bijdrage van de jaren zeventig aan de popmuziek van dag tot dag worden gevolgd. Hans Knot nam het voor ons door.
Dutch Als een kerstboom zonder piek (december 2009). Zogeheten "foute muziek" is zonder meer een apart genre. De grenzen van die categorie zijn moeilijk te benoemen, maar zeker is dat veel seizoensgebonden en zeker veel kerstmuziek onder die noemer te vatten zijn. Hans Knot kreeg een hele cd-box met dat soort kerstliedjes toegestuurd en maakte er deze korte bespreking van.
Dutch De muzikale reis van Ramses Shaffy (november 2009). De muzikale revolutie van de jaren zestig beperkte zich niet alleen tot de popmuziek. Ook het Franse chanson, een genre met een lange traditie in Nederland, onderging een ware transformatie. In de voorhoede daarvan stond in Nederland de figuur van Ramses Shaffy, die de uitstraling van Jacques Brel moeiteloos wist te combineren met de uitbundigheid van Charles Aznavour. Het nieuwe cd- en dvd-pakket Ramses — Laat me biedt een auditieve en visuele terugblik op zijn lange carrière. Hans Knot bespreekt hier de beide boxen.
Dutch De muzikale jaren vijftig van Vic van de Reijt (maart 2009). Op het vlak van de populaire muziek waren de jaren vijftig allerminst eenvormig. Naast het lichte lied, de crooners en de rock-and-roll was er ondermeer een golf van internationaal getinte songs en een hausse aan instrumentale muziek. Van deze verscheidenheid maakte Vic van der Reijt onlangs een muzikaal overzicht, dat hier door Hans Knot wordt besproken.
Dutch Muziek in Den Haag en Scheveningen (september 2008). Voor de muziekgeschiedenis is niet alleen de muziek zelf van belang. Ook de plaatsen waar die muziek gemaakt en beluisterd werd hebben soms iets bijzonders. Wat Nederland betreft geldt dat zeker voor Den Haag. Die plaats was niet alleen de beatstad bij uitstek: ook eerder al viel daar veel te beleven op het vlak van de klassieke en de populaire muziek. In een kloek boekwerk staat een en ander nu samengevat. Hans Knot las het voor ons door.
Dutch Plezier en protest (mei 2008). Voor veel mensen staat de popmuziek uit de jaren zestig gelijk aan protestmuziek. Toch vormden protestsongs maar een miniem deel van die muziek. De meeste songs uit dat onstuimige decennium zijn vrolijke liefdesliedjes. Pop is, kort gezegd, meer plezier dan protest. Dit doet evenwel niets af van de reputatie die popmuziek heeft verworven als de muziek van de sociale verandering. De kracht van popmuziek schuilt in haar muzikale idioom, waarmee ze — in liefdesliedjes net zo goed als in protestsongs — de algemene principes uitdroeg van respect, reciprociteit en empathie. Die principes vormen de verborgen schakel tussen jeugd- en tegencultuur en verklaren, zo betoogt Ger Tillekens in dit artikel, de rol die de popmuziek speelde in de culturele revolutie van de jaren zestig.
Dutch Nederland en Pink Floyd, Pink Floyd en Nederland (november 2007). Wat hebben Pink Floyd en Nederland met elkaar van doen? Over die vraag, zo blijkt, kan een flink boek worden volgeschreven. Charles Beterams en Robert Haagsma bewezen het met hun publicatie die onlangs verscheen uitgeverij Aprilis. Hans Knot dook diep in de bladzijden en laat ons zijn oordeel weten.
Dutch Muziek in zwart-wit (februari 2007). In zijn boek Muziek in zwart-wit gaat Cor Gout terug naar de jaren dertig, veertig en vijftig, de hoogtijdagen van het "lichte lied" in Nederland. In uitgebreide interviews laat hij de artiesten aan het woord over hun wederwaardigheden in het muziekcircuit van die tijd. Hans Knot las het boek voor ons.
Dutch Helden van de Nederpop (december 2006). Peter Sijnke interviewde een twintigtal Nederlandse popartiesten uit de jaren zestig en vatte hun terugblikken samen in het boek "Nederpophelden." Hans Knot werkte zich enthousiast door de bijna 200 bladzijden heen en schreef deze bespreking voor ons.
English Locked into the Hotel California (october 2006). The Eagles' song "Hotel California" is built upon seven simple chords. The way in which these chords combine, though, is rather complex. Interpreting the music of this song seems as difficult as decoding its lyrics. Ger Tillekens here analyses the basic chord pattern as an expanded Spanish progression that gives the song its Spanish feel and acts as to keep it locked into the moment.
English A flood of flat-sevenths (june 2006). According to many pop-musicologists the flat-seventh chord, or subtonic, can be regarded as one of the marks of the Beatles' experimental period. On the Beatles' 1966 album Revolver this chord is paired to a lavish use of quartal harmonies. Is this peculiar chord responsible for the album's atmosphere? Answering this question, Ger Tillekens here takes a closer look at the flat-seventh.
English "Loops and bloops" (february 2006). The Commodore 64 was the greatest-selling home computer system of all time, and still draws a large crowd of retro-gamers. Despite its popularity, the music of C64 games has never before been analysed in any academic articles. Filling this gap in respect to the peculiarities of the Commodore's soundchip, Karen Collins here introduces our readers to the musical aesthetics of the C64.
English From Grant Green to B.B. King to T-Bone Walker (february 2006). Despite his fame as Blue Note Records' "house guitarist," Grant Green (1931-1979) has not been awarded his rightful place as one of the outstanding jazz musicians of the twentieth century. This may be attributed to the commercial sidesteps Green made in his later career. However, as Andrew Scott shows in a musicological analysis of three Green improvisations, Green's marginalized "commercial" has much in common with his earlier more celebrated performances. The dismissal of Green's late era career by jazz historians seems not to be an issue of music, but of artifice.
English The four dimensions of popular music (july 2005). Over the past year Ger Tillekens and Juul Mulder have tried to get a grasp on the shifting music prefences of secondary and primary school pupils. In the summer of 2005, they presented a paper on this subject on the 13th biennial conference "Making Music, Making Meaning" of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music (IASPM) in Rome. The paper shows the results of their analyses of some large datasets covering the 1980s and 1990s up to 2001.
English Locating Louis Simão in the Toronto Latin Music community (september 2004). Ontario hosts an active Latin Music scene. In this urban setting, authenticity clearly is at play. However, just as their audiences, the artists involved don't seem to care much for what constitutes authentic Latin music. Instead they are pushing the boundaries by focusing on the intertextuality of the music and the sonic gesture of the performance. In an ethnographic dialog with musicians like Louis Simão, David French and Rich Greenspoon, Andrew Scott looks deeper into this matter.
Dutch Vroege elektronische muziek (august 2004). De elektronische muziek is inmiddels diep doorgedrongen in de hitparade, maar slechts weinig mensen weten waar het aanvankelijk ooit begon: in het Philips Natlab in Eindhoven waar Dick Raaijmakers en Ton Dissevelt hun eerste elektronische composities in elkaar zetten. Die vergeten geschiedenis wordt nu in volle glorie blootgelegd op de de 4CD-box Popular Electronics. Early Dutch electronic music from Philips Research Laboratories, 1956-1963 van Kees Tazelaar. Jelle Boonstra geeft blijk van zijn waardering in deze enthousiaste bespreking.
Dutch En Venus was haar naam ... (juni 2004). Op de ochtend van 8 juni 2004 schoof de planeet Venus voorlangs de zon. Ter gelegenheid van deze Venus-transitie liet de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen een aantal sprekers aan het woord over Venus in al haar verschijningsvormen. Ger Tillekens leverde een korte bijdrage over de betekenis van Venus in de popmuziek. Voor ons tijdschrift schreef hij deze uitgebreide versie.
English The Orbison way (april 2004). Earlier on René de Bruin catalogued the song career of Roy Orbison over the years from 1955 till 1965. Over that period Orbison released no less than a hundred songs. De Bruin now takes us through the MGM-years, adding yet another 156 songs to the Orbison songlist.
English Semantic shifts in Beatles' chord progressions (april 2004). The Beatles' chord transitions, Ger Tillekens (1998) argued, reflect their lyrics by referring to changing contexts of conversation. However, can and do listeners actually perceive chord transitions that way? Using an experimental design, Juul Mulder tried to answer this question. Here we reprint the results.
English The El Mocambo Tavern and the Toronto music scene (december 2003). Despite its illusory quality, Allan Moore argues, pop audiences feel the need to ascribe authenticity to particular artists. The same can be said of the public spaces that prove so important in the history of pop music. Just like artists, they may win or lose their credits of that strange, volatile currency that regulates their fates. Looking into this matter, Andrew Scott here analyzes the final chapter of Toronto's rock temple, the El Mocambo.
Dutch De betekenis van heavy metal (august 2003). In 1996 publiceerde Jeffrey Jensen Arnett de resultaten van zijn onderzoek naar de subcultuur en fanbase van de heavy metal, de heavy-metal-scene. Zowel zijn methodologische aanpak als zijn theoretische vragen zijn nog steeds relevant, zo betoogt Juul Mulder in deze boekbespreking.
Dutch Zesendertig beatmeisjes en evenzovele verhalen (april 2003). In het jaar 2000 verscheen bij uitgeverij Arena in Amsterdam een boekje met de titel Nederbeat van de hand van Frank Dam. Een vervolg is nu uitgebracht door de Uitgeverij Veen in Amsterdam onder de veelzeggende titel Beatmeisjes. Hans Knot las het voor ons door.
English The music matters (april 2003). Speaking about Chuck Berry, Robert Christgau once wrote: "Repetition without tedium is the backbone of rock and roll." This thesis is confirmed by Joe Burns for this whole style of popular music from the years 1955 through 1959. He here presents the results of his analysis of the chord progressions, time signatures and melody lines of a representative sample of 100 rock and roll songs.
English The riddles of rock and roll (april 2003). Rock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. So, how did this music acquire its rebellious image? Investigating this question, Leo D'Anjou here retells the story of the early beginnings of rock music.
English And the music plays on ... (february 2003). In April 1961 Del Shannon topped the American and British charts with his song "Runaway", proving that not only British artists were busy renewing the idiom of pop music at that time. Remembering Shannon, René de Bruin here describes his career and lists his song releases.
English Five-country VAT survey: a summary of the main results (february 2003). The European Commission is currently reviewing the 6th VAT Directive and is expected to announce a proposal regarding the classification of cultural products before the summer. The music industry is hoping this will reduce the VAT on music CD's. Here we reproduce the scarce figures used by the IFPI to help their lobby campaign Give Music A Break.
Dutch De Haagse wortels van de Nederlandse popmuziek (februari 2003). Als het Liverpool van de jaren vijftig en zestig een Nederlandse tegenhanger had, dan was dat ongetwijfeld Den Haag wel, zo laten Ton van Steen en Bert Bossink zien in hun boek Het Liverpool van Nederland. Ger Tillekens, zelf geboren en getogen in de hofstad, las hun verhaal kritisch door.
Dutch De terugkeer van de song (februari 2003). Gaat het echt zo slecht met de Nederlandse muziekindustrie? Rond die vraag organiseerde Muziek en Beeld een bijeenkomst op het Noorderslag-seminar van 10 januari 2003. Ger Tillekens presenteerde daar een toekomstscenario. De uitgewerkte versie van zijn bijdrage is nu hier te lezen.
English Marks of the Dorian family (november 2002). "Drunken Sailor" and "Scarborough Fair": both songs have the feel of shifting between two keys. Introducing the concept of the Dorian twin tone system, Ger Tillekens here discusses the family traits of these traditionals.
English The monumental music of Roy Orbison (september 2002). Some time ago René de Bruin catalogued the first twenty-five recorded songs performed by Roy Orbison for the famous Sun-label. In this follow-up he now picks up the story of Orbison's recording career from 1959 till 1965, presenting an inventory of all seventy-five songs performed for and released by Monument.
English American popular song (july 2002). The aesthetics of American popular music are based on the "unexpected yet perfectly appropriate note." This, however, means that there has to exist standards against which the songwriters, the musicians, the singers and the audience can measure their expectations. These shared standards were formed and institutionalized, Howard S. Becker argues, when popular music traded the parlor for the public.
Dutch De koning van de weg (juni 2002). Pop en country zijn altijd verschillende muzikale stijlen gebleven. Enkele artiesten overschreden echter met succes de muzikale grenzen, waaronder Roger Miller die in 1965 met zijn "King Of The Road" zowel de pop- als de country-lijsten besteeg. Bert Bossink vertelt hier het verhaal van deze muzikale grensbewoner.
English What a rock concert should do ... (may 2002). From April 1st to May 17th 2002 Paul McCartney is touring, or rather "driving" the US. Walt Everett was there on May 1st, when the Driving USA 2002 tour played the Palace in Auburn Hills, Detroit, and takes us through the set list.
Dutch Vertaald en bewerkt (mei 2002). In een nieuw verschenen overzicht zette Vic van Reijt honderd popsongs op een rijtje die ooit in het Nederlands werden vertaald en op single uitgebracht. Bij elke song geeft hij de teksten van de Nederlandstalige bewerkingen en de nodige achtergrondinformatie. Al lezend in het boek liet Hans Knot zich meevoeren door zijn herinneringen.
Dutch De eerste vijfentwintig Orbisongs (februari 2002). Het wordt wel eens vergeten, maar naast Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins en Jerry Lee Lewis, was Roy Orbison een van de belangrijke grondleggers van de rock-'n-roll. René de Bruin inventariseert wat er is overgebleven van Orbison's werk uit zijn beginjaren voor het Sun-label.
Dutch Songteksten voor de jeugd van toen (december 2001). Co de Kloet en Leo Boudewijns doken in het verleden van de Nederlandse hitradio en stelden een boek samen met de teksten van liedjes die in de jaren zestig te horen waren in het radioprogramma Tijd voor Teenagers. Hans Knot las het voor ons en liet zich door de teksten voor eventjes terugvoeren in de tijd.
English One continent under a groove (november 2001). The outer-national identifications and trans-local collectivities of dance culture force us to rethink the theoretical concepts and approaches of cultural studies. But, how? Exploring this question, Ben Carrington and Brian Wilson here take us on a short trip from Chicago to Birmingham and beyond, trying to reformulate the problematic of the "local" and the "global".
English Testing the curtailment thesis (october 2001). According to Norbert Elias, the modernization of society curtails the expression of anger and shame, while at the same time furthering sexual expression. But, how does popular music fit in with this curtailment thesis? Following his analysis of popular song lyrics, published in this journal, Thomas J. Scheff here sketches the outlines of a research project to test the curtailment thesis on popular music and novels.
English Words of love and isolation (october 2001). Since modern Western societies focus on individuals rather than relationships, we would expect individualist, rather than relational patterns in U.S. popular lyrics. Investigating this hypothesis Thomas Scheff counted romance words in all titles in the Top 40 for a seventy-year period, and analyzed the discourse of romantic lyrics for one sample year in each of seven decades.
Dutch Homeward Bound (oktober 2001). Wat hebben Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Richard Fariña en Paul Simon gemeen, behalve hun sterke verbinding met New York? Dat is die andere grote stad: Londen. Alle vier maakten ze daar belangrijke plaatopnames, en bovendien nog voordat ze internationaal, en zelfs in hun moederland Amerika, doorbraken. Wim van Cleef bespreekt de invloed van de Britse folk-scene uit de jaren zestig op de muzikale loopbaan van Paul Simon en Art Garfunkel.
English Staccato, swivel and glide (july 2001). "Awopbopaloobob alopbamboom" — what on earth does that mean? Not only is this phrase from Little Richard's Tutti Frutti hard to understand, but so are the lyrics of most rock songs. Rock music often plays games with the comprehensibility of its lyrics. Why? The answer to this question, Christophe den Tandt argues in the present essay, lies in the fact that rock endorses an aesthetics of semi-articulation.
English No Foolin' (june 2001). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, in the work of Captain Beefheart and Frank Zappa, Art Rock appropriated the modernist strands of Surrealism and Dadaism. However, Beefheart or Zappa, who of them really was the Surrealist and who the Dadaist? For an answer to that question, Marco Maurizi argues, one has to delve deeper into the strategies of both these forms of anti-Art.
English Symbolism and practice (may 2001). A reprint of a theoretical paper, published as Stencilled Occasional Paper SP 13 by the Centre of Cultural Studies of Birmingham (CCCS), treating the subject of pop music and written more than twenty-five years ago, in 1974, by Paul Willis.
English The Napster episode (april 2001). In January 2001 some three billion song copies found their way through the peer-to-peer network of Napster. It was a final spurt, as the system had to stop the distribution of commercial recordings on charges of copyright infringement. It is not the first time the recording industry has confronted new media. Consequently, Timothy J. Dowd argues, past episodes provide a purchase on the Napster episode and its possible resolution.
English West meets East (april 2001). In 1965 Indian music and rock music met as the sitar made its entrance in some very popular rock songs. The first appearance of the sitar in a rock song seems to be the recording of the Yardbirds "Heart Full Of Soul", although the version with the sitar would not see release for another nineteen years. The song became a major hit with Jeff Beck doing an expert imitation on an ordinary guitar. The Kinks and the Beatles were soon to follow. Frederick W. Harrison here explores these meeting points of popular and Indian music.
English The Queen anomaly (february 2001). In the 1970s and 1980s the British rock group Queen scored an impressive number of hits. Many of their songs are rich in melodic content, strengthened yet by a low level of melody repetition. In this respect the Queen song repertoire seems to deviate from the standards of rock music. Denes Pinter adstructs and discusses this remarkable anomaly at length.
English Tracking: Popular Music Studies (november 2000). From 1988 to 1992 the U.S. branch of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music (IASPM) published the journal Tracking: Popular Music Studies. All seventeen articles, appearing in the four volumes, are now made available here.
English Popular music studies (november 2000). Why are some works of rock music higher valued than others? For an answer to that question, Motti Regev argues, we should look at the way the producers and the interpreters succeeded in gaining legitimacy and recognition. The authenticity of rock and its musical value are meanings produced for the music by its producers and by its interpreters as part of the strategy of the struggle for recognition. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1992, 4, 2.
English Pleasure and principles (november 2000). In this essay David Sanjek offers a critical analysis of Rolling Stone magazine, Sound Choice, The Source, Rock and Roll Confidential and some self-produced fanzines like Swellsville and Why Music Sucks and their struggle to create "authentic" communities within and against the current fragmentation of audiences. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1992, 4, 2.
English An examination of the bootleg record industry and its impact upon popular music consumption (november 2000). Since the 1960s the bootleg record industry has shown considerable growth. Generally bootleg records present unauthorized recordings based on unauthorized taping of live performances or radio and television broadcasts, or stolen tapes from unreleased studio sessions of a particular artist or group. Bootleg recordings exist because they have a market: they fulfill fan needs. Here Gary Warren Melton researches the role of some Beatles' fanzines as an intermediary between the bootleg record industry and the Beatles' fan. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1991, 4, 1.
English "Supremely clubbed, devastatingly dubbed" (november 2000). From its inception in the mid-seventies, the 12-inch single became a vehicle for the emancipation of the disk-jockey, documenting his development from a more passive role as turntable operator to more active ones in the fields of song writing, production and engineering. Here Kai Fikentscher tells about the history of this record format and the way it was used by DJ's to change their role in music production. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1991, 4, 1.
English Berlin '91: Impressions (november 2000). A short account by Paul Friedlander of the IASPM International Conference of 1991, held at the Humboldt University Conference Center in Berlin. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1991, 4, 1.
English Gypsies are here to stay (november 2000). In this short essay Barbara J. Kwiatkowska explores the history of Gypsy music and its relationship with Poland, highlighting some examples of the influences of Gypsy music on the popular music of the sixties and seventies. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1991, 3, 2.
English Academic characteristics of music business programs (november 2000). This study by Frederick J. Taylor assesses the primary academic characteristics and standards of music business programs in institutions of higher education and the extent of minority enrollment in these programs art the end of the 1990s. The data indicate that music business programs in U.S. colleges and universities at that time had different organizational structures, program requirements, faculty qualifications, and academic standards. There seemed to be little if any uniformity of academic standards in U.S. music business programs. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1991, 3, 2.
English Did he write that? (november 2000). Composer, arranger, pianist and vocalist Harold Arlen was born on February 15, 1905, in Buffalo, New York, the son of a cantor. He began concentrating on composition in the late 1920s. From the late 1920s to the mid 1930s, Arlen wrote many songs which were featured in shows at Harlem's Cotton Club. In the early 1930s, he began writing music for Broadway musicals and Hollywood musicals. Chances are you will know more than one of them, though you never knew who wrote them. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1990, 3, 1.
English Clarifying labels: Cool Jazz, West Coast and Hard Bop (november 2000). The variety of jazz styles that emerged during the 1950s was followed by very little agreement about how to describe them. Moreover, there is only limited consistency in how journalists and historians apply labels when they discuss jazz styles of that period. Here, Mark Gridley, discusses the uses of the labels of "Cool Jazz," "West Coast," and "Hard Bop," trying to clarify trends in the vast array of styles that were evident in modern jazz during the 1950s. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1990, 2, 2.
English Promoting social change through audio repetition (november 2000). The development of contemporary American music is clearly reflected in the integration of black composers, performers, and their songs into mainstream popular record charts. Between 1953 and 1978 a fascinating role reversal occurred. During that quarter century black artists shifted from creators to revivalists. To analyze this shift B. Lee Cooper here makes a careful examination of the cover recordings and song revivals. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1989, 2, 1.
English Asking questions (november 2000). Focusing attention upon a series of core concepts, such as the audience, textual methods, resistance, and postmodernism, Stan W. Denski and David J. Sholle here present a series of fundamental theoretical questions on the topic of popular music studies for the 1990s. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1989, 2, 1.
English The politics of meaning (november 2000). Since the music of any society or group is symbolic and, as such, should contribute in a large part to the dominant and alternative ideologies of the society or group in question, particular forms of music can be analyzed as ideologies. Applying Raymond Williams' approach of ideologies as residual, emergent and oppositional, George H. Lewis here interprets the emergence of new Hawaiian popular music in the 1970s and 1980s. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1988, 1, 2.
English The erotic and destructive in 1980s rock music (november 2000). Duran Duran's song "Hungry Like The Wolf" (1982) explores the theme of lycanthropy, a form of bestiality which itself is an expression of the broader theme of eroticism in the sense of broaching the possibility of unusual, tabooed, or "perverse" sexual activities. To analyze interests like these, William Graebner argues, we need a theory that might clarify and explain rock music's significance on a cultural level. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1988, 1, 2.
English The Rock Window (november 2000). The Rock Window was originally created in 1980, for use as an educational tool for courses in Rock Music History at the University of Oregon, School of Music. This instrument can, as Paul Friedlander argues, be useful to the student and scholar for presenting an organized picture of a particular song, group of songs, artists work, or music of a specific musical genre. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1988, 1, 1.
English Genre and recalcitrance (november 2000). During the 1950s the dominant form of commercial country music changed from a twangy, tavern-based honky-tonk sound to the smoother, more orchestrated Nashville Sound. Not, however, because of the external forces of commercialization. Rather, as Joli Jensen argues in this essay, it was changed from within, while maintaining, as best as it could, its identity as country. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1988, 1, 1.
English Ian Anderson's acoustic guitar in the early recordings of Jethro Tull (november 2000). Ian Anderson's acoustic guitar was important for Jethro Tull's specific sound. The instrument was markedly used for dramatic contrast, a device much in evidence throughout Aqualung (1971) and Thick As A Brick (1972). Giving some examples from these albums, Roger L. Anderson here analyzes the workings of Ian Anderson's strumming and fingerpicking patterns. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1988, 1, 1.
English Kate Bush (november 2000). In the early 1970s record industry executives noticed that adventurous musicians could actually make money. Kate Bush was one of the artists to profit. In this essay Holly Kruse tells how Bush used her artistic freedom to become a highly respected pop pioneer. Notice: this essay was originally published in Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1988, 1, 1.
English "Not A Second Time" (august 2000). Many experts take the early Beatles' song "Not A Second Time" for a weak member of the group's songbook, mainly because of the inconsistencies between Lennon's lyrics and his voicing of the song lines. The Finnish philosopher T.P. Uschanov argues, however, that the song's strength resides precisely in this incoherence. Therefore the song, he says, offers an excellent argument for the significance of semiotics for popular music studies.
English Rocking the vote (august 2000). While Al Gore and George W. Bush are competing for the U.S. presidential election, we take a step back to the elections of 1996. Then, for the first time young people were addressed by campaigns of the record industry and MTV to go voting. How did these two facets of the music industry develop a concern for young voters? And, what are the implications of this new concern? Here we reprint the answers to these questions, offered by Timothy J. Dowd at that time.
English The rise and fall of the experimental style of the Beatles (july 2000). Nowadays it has become common practice to identify the musical career of the Beatles with the development of a musical style. Taking the Sgt. Pepper's album of June 1967 as the peak of the Beatles' musical experiments, many books on this subject easily speak of a "rise" and "fall" of the Beatles' experimental style. In this essay Tuomas Eerola discloses his research into the adequacy of these concepts.
English Songwriting, recording, and style change (july 2000). In the Beatles' songs one can notice some remarkable style changes. To analyse these, however, one first has to solve the problem of the periodization. Yrjö Heinonen and Tuomas Eerola argue the solution lies in dividing the work of the Beatles into twelve recording projects. Using this intermediate level between song and period a more reliable picture of the change of the musical style of the Beatles can be obtained.
English Words and chords (july 2000). In the Beatles' songs each of the basic chords can be replaced by several other types of chords. Separated by minor third intervals, the tones of these stand-in chords show a diagonal relationship. This principle of diagonal substitution helps the listeners to understand the songs musically. Closer study of the early Beatles' songs reveals yet another point of support. As Ger Tillekens shows, in each song there is a tight relation between the clusters of these stand-in chords and the semantics of the lyrics.
English Markus Heuger's Beabliography (june 2000). The Beabliography is a huge bibliography of "mostly academic writings" about the Beatles, initiated by Markus Heuger. The Beabliography offers an alphabetical author index and a systematic catalogue of relevant subjects.
English Passion, pop and self control (april 2000). "Sex, drugs and rock 'n' roll": that's the self-proclaimed image of rock culture as we know it since rock 'n' roll and rhythm and blues came of age in the fifties and sixties. Living up to this pose of excess, however, requires a certain amount of self control. In this essay Henk Kleijer and Ger Tillekens delve deeper into this relationship, exploring the absence of the feeling of guilt in pop music, the workings of the double standard of sexuality, and the communicative mechanisms of irony and banter.
Dutch Swing & Sweet, from Hollywood & 52nd Street (februari 2000). In een eerder artikel beschreven Jean-Luc Bostyn, Hans Knot en Ger Tillekens de voorgeschiedenis van de hitlijsten. Ter aanvulling diepte Hans Knot uit zijn archief de eerste jaargangen van het muziekblad Tuney Tunes op en vond daarin een interview met Pete Felleman uit 1948 naar aanleiding van diens radio-programma "Swing & Sweet, from Hollywood & 52nd Street".
Dutch De prehistorie van de hitparade (februari 2000). In 1894 kwam het eerste nummer uit van het tijdschrift Billboard. In dat tijdschrift verscheen — wanneer is niet exact bekend, maar in ieder geval al in 1914 — de eerste hitparade. Eind jaren veertig werd die lijst door Pete Felleman op de Nederlandse radio ge ntroduceerd. Jean-Luc Bostyn, Hans Knot en Ger Tillekens beschrijven hier deze prehistorie van de hitlijsten.
Dutch Wat moeten we nu nog met Adorno? (januari 2000). Ger Tillekens bespreekt twee nieuwe boeken van en over Adorno: een heruitgave van Adorno's invloedrijke essay's over de cultuurindustrie met een introductie door Jay Bernstein; en een boek van Robert Witkin over Adorno's denkbeelden over de muziek.
English Some writings of Adorno (january 2000). Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969) and the other members of the first generation of the "Frankfurt School" of Critical Theory were very influential in shaping the philosophical views on modern mass media and popular music. For those who are curious about Adorno's works, this database offers some of his writings on the subjects of culture industry and popular music.
English Silent Night, Holy Night (december 1999). Next to love songs there are many Christmas songs belonging to the domain of popular music. Some of them return each year on Christmas Eve to be heard on radio and television: "Jingle Bells", "Rudolph The Rednosed Rendeer", "White Christmas", and, of course, the oldest of them all and a class in itself: "Silent Night, Holy Night". Here Bill Egan tells the story of this famous carol.
English The official Beatles' canon (december 1999). Alan W. Pollack's famous analyses of the Beatles' songs, now arranged along the lines of official Beatles' canon according to the release dates of the singles, EP's and albums.
Dutch Verstand van popmuziek? (november 1999). Wie heeft meer verstand van popmuziek: de gedistantieerde wetenschapper of de betrokken journalist? Wetenschappers doen misschien wel meer onderzoek, maar toch kunnen nog wel ze iets leren van de journalistiek. Verstand van popmuziek staat, zo betoogt René Boomkens in dit essay, nooit helemaal los van een heel specifieke, zelfs persoonlijke betrokkenheid bij bepaalde popmuzikanten, groepen of stromingen. De aard van de popmuziek zelf maakt dat onmogelijk.
Dutch Wij en zij (november 1999). Wie zich vanuit de wetenschap met de populaire cultuur en de populaire muziek bemoeit, krijgt het moeilijk: met de verleiding om binnen het domein van de populaire cultuur een onderscheid te maken tussen "goede" en "slechte" producten, met collega's die de populaire cultuur onbelangrijk vinden, en natuurlijk — wanneer een publicatie aanslaat — met journalisten die menen zelf meer "feeling" te hebben met de populaire cultuur. Gust de Meyer brengt al deze klippen op de ontdekkingsreis van het academisch onderzoek naar de populaire cultuur en de populaire muziek hier voor ons in kaart.
Dutch Pluggen met payola (november 1999). Een album of single verkoopt beter wanneer de betreffende liedjes regelmatig op de radio te horen zijn. Zoiets valt te organiseren, bijvoorbeeld door de deejays daarvoor onder de tafel te betalen. Payola, zo heet dat. In de jaren vijftig was er in Amerika veel te doen over die illegale vorm van platen pluggen. Op dit moment lijkt het verschijnsel de kop daar weer op te steken. Herbert Visser en Rene Burcksen berichten erover.
English The amazing grace of "Never Ever" (november 1999). "Never Ever", the 1998 hit song of the British girl band All Saints, is a simple three-chord song. These three chords also happen to be the so-called basic chords: tonic, subdominant and dominant. In pop and rock music songs with only these chords are hard to find. It also is a nice song. That's why Ger Tillekens uses it here for an analysis of the workings of these three basic chords.
Dutch De waarde van popmuziek (oktober 1999). In de popmuziek liggen commercie en cultuur dicht bij elkaar. De culturele kanten zijn moeilijk te scheiden van de economische aspecten. Dat maakt popmuziek tot een lastig onderwerp voor economen. Begin dit jaar promoveerde Wilfred Dolfsma op een studie waarin dit probleem centraal staat. Henk Kleijer en Ger Tillekens werpen een kritische blik op zijn boek.
English Who is the main composer of the Beatles' songs? (october 1999). From the very beginnings of the Beatles Paul McCartney and John Lennon decided to publish their songs under both their names. So all their songs bear the cooperative hallmark "Lennon / McCartney". But, some songs were more Lennon's work, while others more exclusively show the hand of McCartney. Here Per Myrsten answers the question who was the main composer of each and every Beatles' song.
Dutch Bubbling als uiting van verborgen protest (oktober 1999). Bubbling: het begon allemaal in Den Haag in discotheek Voltage in 1988 met DJ Moortje, MC Pester en MC Pret. Vanaf 1990 werd deze vorm van dansen en de bijbehorende muziek een rage in alle grote discotheken van Nederland. De muziekbladen en kranten zagen het "bobbelen" of "bubbelen" vooral als een nieuwe sexy stijl van dansen. Volgens Marion van San was het echter allereerst een uiting van verborgen protest, geboren uit de Antilliaanse jeugdcultuur.
English "As seen on TV" (september 1999). Het televisiestation Music Television, beter bekend onder de afkorting MTV, begon in 1981 met zijn uitzendingen in Amerika. De continue stroom videoclips en de directe presentatiestijl van de VJ's week zoveel af van de gangbare televisieprogrammering, dat veel wetenschappers het station zagen als het toppunt van postmoderniteit. Marc van Onna legde op 18 mei 1994 gedurende 16 uur de clips van MTV vast op tape en analyseerde het geheel om te zien of die omschrijving wel echt van toepassing was.
English Boys will be Girl Group, or the Johnettes (september 1999). Between 1958 and 1965 the sound of Girl Groups reigned high in the US Top Ten. Though the songs of these groups appear quite simple to the ear, the music and lyrics contain subtle and suprising innovations. Next to the rhythm and blues and the rock 'n' roll — Greg Panfile shows — this style of popular music exerted an important influence on the music of the Beatles and their fellow musicians of the British beat explosion.
English Lord Sutch (1940-1999) (august 1999). Slechts gekleed in een luipaardvel presenteerde hij zijn Official Monster Raving Loony Party bij tal van lokale, regionale en nationale verkiezingen: David Edward Sutch, die zichzelf tooide met de titel van Lord. Een zetel won hij nooit. Wel werd hij de langst zittende partijleider uit de Britse politieke geschiedenis. Bekend werd hij, toen hij in 1964 als een promotiestunt voor zijn popgroep Lord Sutch and the Savages, startte met de zeezender Radio Sutch. Op woensdag 15 juni 1999 maakte hij een eind aan zijn leven. Hans Knot kijkt terug op het leven van een opmerkelijke figuur uit de geschiedenis van de zeezenders.
English Music in Europe (july 1999). In April 1995 a number of associations within the European music industry decided to open the European Music Office in Brussels. The first initiative of the EMO was to propose a study on the nature and diversity of music sector-related activities at the European level in both the economic and the cultural and social domains. In September 1996 this initiative resulted in an extensive report, presented at a meeting in October 1996 in Ireland. This database covers both parts of it in full.
English The economic importance of music in the European Union (july 1999). This report, written by Dave Laing, is the first part of the study Music in Europe of the European Music Office. It also claims to be the first attempt to survey the whole of the economic dimension of music in the European Union, treating all important sectors: recorded music, royalties and neighbouring rights, live performances, musical instrument markets, the media, education and the financial backing of the various institutional partners.
English Global sounds and local brews (july 1999). This essay on the musical developments and music industry in Europe was written by Paul Rutten in 1996. It touches on the role of today's music in societies and cultures in Europe. It deals with the question of the development of the popular music in contemporary Europe and tries to step over the simplifying notion of "Americanization" by introducing the concept of "creolisation" in discussions on musical developments.
English Popular music and processes of social transformation (july 1999). Rock music, Peter Wicke argues, played an important role in the collapse of the Berlin Wall. "It was as a result of rock's paradoxical and contradictory position within the political processes of East Germany that it came to play a role in the events of 1989."
English Music and identity among European youth (july 1999). In this essay Keith Roe discusses the developments in research on popular music, focusing attention on what research has had to say regarding the role which music plays in a number of important dimensions of the life experience of young people and some of the ways in which it is used to construct identity.
English Popular music policy and the articulation of regional identities (july 1999). Pop and rock music have become global institutions. If, as an effect, our music no longer carries traces of our immediate histories, then what makes it "ours" in the first place becomes diffused into a vague sense of nostalgia, and musicians have to look for new ways of making a difference. The question is whether this difference is now locally or nationally defined: in what sense are the Cranberries an Irish group or Wet Wet Wet a Scottish one? Does their Irishness or Scottishness have any effect on how they are heard? Here Simon Frith tries to answer that question.
English Latin lovers: salsa musicians and their audience in London (july 1999). In the nineties the city of London saw a small Latin dance boom. In this essay, based on a series of interviews conducted in spring 1996 with musicians and other members of the Latin scene in London, Vincenzo Perna takes a closer look at the salsa world trying to assess the reasons of the trivial, that is popular music as dance music.
English Music industry and music lovers, beyond Benjamin (july 1999). One's sense of the "aura" of a work of art is essentially associated with being in the presence of the "original" work. Nowadays the mechanisms of mass production and distribution — radio, television, records and CD's — have transformed the aura of music performance into a distanced one. This seems to have made the active music amateur into an anachronism, a survivor of the past. However, Antoine Hennion draws another conclusion from his interviews of amateurs.
English La Friche Belle de Mai (july 1999). La Friche Belle de Mai is located in a large, forty-thousand-square-meter former tobacco factory, a little to the northeast of the historic center of Marseilles. It was created in the nineties as a new form of culture center. Myriam Teka a describes the range of its activities.
English Hip Hop and Rap in Europe (july 1999). In the nineties Hip Hop and Rap, the culture of the urban ghettos, became the sound of Paris — and suburban and provincial France for that matter. More precisely, a Hip Hop built of French language lyrics laid on top of traditional breakbeats and elaborate samples. But, France, as Marie-Agnès Beau shows in this essay, was not the only European country to develop its own flavour of Hip Hop and Rap.
English The charm of activity as the essence of musical expression (july 1999). How does a Dutch band experience its fame in Europe? To answer this question Paul Rutten interviews Henk Hofstede of the Nits, asking him about the troubles it took to reach more than a local audience.
English The non-profit music organisation in partnership with the commercial field (july 1999). The Finnish Music Information Centre (Finnish MIC) serves clients professionally involved in the field of music. The organisation is maintained by the Finnish Composers' Copyright Society (Teosto). Its aim is to promote the use of Finnish music both at home and abroad, covering all genres of music from rock to classical. Jari Muikku offers an overview of the activities.
English The traditional musics in Europe (july 1999). It was modern times that invented the very concept of traditional music, as we know it today. The concept has evolved over the years. First it moved from country to popular, next from popular to folk, then from folk to traditional. At the beginning of the nineties, the traditional music movement was caught up by another musical wave which has its origins in England: the "world-music" phenomenon. Jany Rouger and Jean-François Dutertre look at the developments and its consequences for European cultural policies.
Dutch De muziek van de Beatles (juni 1999). Medio 1997 zond de VPRO in het programma De Avonden een driedelige radioserie uit over de muziek van de Beatles, vervaardigd door Harry Klaassen en Piet Schreuders. Hun conclusie: de Beatles munten uit in samenspel, samenzang, samenwerking in de composities, en vernieuwing. Die vernieuwing blijkt, zo stellen ze vast, vooral uit "verboden" akkoordenprogressies en onregelmatige maatschema's. Wat daar zo merkwaardig aan is, valt hier te lezen in het volledige script van de drie afleveringen.
Dutch Heavy metal: rebels en religieus (mei 1999). Popmuziek gaat niet door voor een onderwerp dat serieuze wetenschappelijk aandacht waard is. Voor heavy metal geldt dat in het kwadraat. Toch roept dit genre de nodige vragen op. Hoe ligt de relatie tussen heavy metal en sociale en culturele veranderingen? Wat is het verband tussen heavy metal en sociale ongelijkheid? Wat zijn de effecten van heavy metal op de integratie van de samenleving en op de zingeving van de betrokkenen? Die drie vragen stelt Wim van Noort hier aan de orde om aan te tonen, dat ook heavy metal wetenschappelijke belangstelling verdient.
Dutch Gospelmuziek en religieuze beleving (april 1999). In de jaren zestig ontstond rond de pop- en rockmuziek een omvattende, seculiere jeugdcultuur. Parallel daaraan, stellen sommigen, ontwikkelde zich ook een christelijke jeugdcultuur, geconcentreerd rond de relipop, of zoals de Amerikanen het noemen "Contemporary Christian Music". In de jaren negentig blijkt de belangstelling voor deze muziek toe te nemen, vooral bij mensen met een protestants-christelijke achtergrond. Saara Finch doet hier verslag van een onderzoek dat zij in 1994 in Vlaanderen onder CCM-liefhebbers uitvoerde.
English Trends and shifts in U.S. music sales (1997-1998) (april 1999). Each year the RIAA — that's short for the Recording Industry Association of America, an institution which represents U.S. record labels — tries to compile, analyze and report on data concerning the volume of shipments and the value of all formats of recorded music shipped into all market channels. There's more, as it also researches trends in music tastes by constructing consumer profiles. The association recently published its sales statistics and consumer report for 1998 on internet. In this summary we take a short look at the most important findings for 1997 and 1998.
Dutch Diversiteit en innovatie in de Nederlandse populaire muziekcultuur (maart 1999). Als kunstvorm is populaire muziek gebaat bij diversiteit en vernieuwing. De productie en distributie van populaire muziek vormen echter een commerciële aangelegenheid en de muziekindustrie heeft daarom — naar men zegt — belang bij een homogene en voorspelbare marktstructuur. Het sociologisch onderzoek naar die spanningsrelatie vormt al geruime tijd een belangrijk aandachtspunt in de studie van de populaire muziek. In deze bijdrage doet Henk Visser verslag van zijn onderzoek uit 1994 naar de diversiteit, innovatie en concentratie in de muziekindustrie voor de Nederlandse markt in de periode 1980-1993.
English A Beatles' Odyssey (march 1999). Alan W. Pollack's Notes on ... Series, a musicological analysis of all the songs the Beatles wrote and performed on their official records, is now available on Soundscapes' pages. This essay, written by Ger Tillekens, offers a short introduction to Pollack's ten year musicological journey along the long and winding roads of the Beatles' songs.
Dutch De rock-'n-roll in Nederland (februari 1999). De rock-'n-roll heeft in Nederland een eigen geschiedenis. Tot op heden was daar maar weinig over bekend. Totdat Rob Labree in zijn boek Rock-'n-roll in rood-wit-blauw alle snippers samenvatte en er nog het zijne aan toevoegde. Michael Christianen bespreekt hier het resultaat.
Dutch House als opmaat voor de 21e eeuw (februari 1999). Muziekjournalist Gert van Veen schrijft vooral over de nieuwe elektronische muziek die zich met de opkomst van de house van de gitaar-rock lijkt te hebben afgezonderd. In Welcome to the future heeft hij een aantal van zijn Volkskrant-artikelen van de afgelopen vijf jaar bewerkt en gebundeld. Marco Draijer bespreekt het boek.
English Notes on ... Series (january 1999). In 1989 the American musicologist Alan W. Pollack started to analyze the songs of the Beatles. He published his first results on internet. In 1991 — after he had finished the work on 28 songs — he bravely decided to do the whole lot of them. About ten years later, in 2000 he completed the analysis of the official Beatles' canon, consisting of 188 songs and 25 covers. Here we have ordered this massive work in five categories. And, for your convenience, we've added an alphabetical index as well as a short introduction.
English Building a mystery (january 1999). Some good rock songs are built on the repeated sequence of just the same few chords. Sarah McLachlan's beautiful song "Building A Mystery" offers a perfect example of such a song. It is based on the chord progression: Bm -» G -» D -» A. Almost instantly the song opens with this sequence and then it keeps on going over and over again till the end. Still, as a whole the song doesn't sound monotonous or boring. The reason: a swift modulation or key shift keeps changing the semantic meaning of the chords. Here Ger Tillekens discusses the whereabouts and attraction of this specific progression and the intricate working of the key shift.
Dutch Tijd voor Teenagers (september 1998). Op 11 september 1959 precies om vijf uur ging de eerste aflevering van "Tijd voor Teenagers" de lucht in. Het was het eerste en lange tijd ook het enige programma op de Nederlandse radio met popmuziek. Het werd uitgezonden door de VARA en aanvankelijk gepresenteerd door hoorspelacteur Dick van 't Sant onder de naam Dick Duster. Later nam presentator Herman Stok het roer over. Regisseur Co de Kloet, die bij de geboorte van het programma aanwezig was, vertelt hier over de beraadslagingen die aan de eerste uitzending vooraf gingen.
English Baroque and folk and ... John Lennon (september 1998). Paul McCartney was the one who imported all those elements of the French chanson, of British folk, of Tin Pan Ally, and of classical music into the Beatles' songs. John Lennon on the other hand was the protagonist of pure rock 'n' roll and rhythm and blues. So goes the simple myth that has wrapped itself tightly around the two musicians, responsible for the majority of the Beatles' greatest compositions. As most myths this one too is not true, as is shown by the fact that in the late sixties and early seventies — the alleged period of Lennon's return to his rock 'n' roll roots — he actually did put some clear folk melodies and classical elements into his songs. Here Ger Tillekens discusses the examples of "Because" and "Happy Xmas".
Dutch Daydream Believer ... (juni 1998). Mensen kunnen zin en betekenis ontlenen aan popmuziek. Dat geldt ook voor het geloof. Bestaat er in die zin een relatie tussen geloof en popmuziek? Staan ze onverschillig naast elkaar? Of zijn het zelfs concurrenten? Over die vragen hielden de pastoraal medewerkers van de krijgsmacht op 18 februari 1997 een symposium in het in het Kontakt der Kontinenten te Soesterberg. Ger Tillekens was een van de inleiders. Hier vind je de volledige tekst van zijn verhaal.
Dutch De invloed van de radio op de popmuziek (mei 1998). Herinneringen aan de popradio, opgehaald door Hans Knot en Arno Weltens naar aanleiding van de wisseltentoonstelling "Popmuziek 1960-1990, beeld en geluid van de jongerencultuur" die vanaf 15 mei 1998 in het Omroepmuseum valt te zien en te horen.
Dutch Het geluid van de Beatles (mei 1998). Een nieuw boek over de muziek van de Beatles door Ger Tillekens met de complete samenvatting in het Nederlands en het Engels hier in Soundscapes.
English The sound of the Beatles (may 1998). A new book on the music of the Beatles by Ger Tillekens, explaining the system behind their curious chord combinations and their harmoniously sounding melodies. For the moment the book is only available in the Dutch language, but this site compensates for this omission with an extensive English summary.
   
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