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  Abstract 0316
  Dotter, Daniel (1987), "Growing up is hard to do. Rock and roll performers as cultural heroes." In: Sociological Spectrum, 1987, 7, 1, 25-44.
  A description of the changing nature of the rock 'n' roll artist as a cultural symbol. The first rock stars, like Elvis Presley, were heroes for the young but decidedly antiheroic to adult society. Transitional ones, such as the Beatles and Bob Dylan, contributed to the commercial viability of rock and more sharply defined their antiheroism in the 1960s. Contemporary artists, like Tina Turner, Michael Jackson or Bruce Springsteen, are drawn from a wider variety of backgrounds and their cultural significance extends beyond their musical talents. The Live Aid, USA for Africa, and Farm Aid efforts illustrate the latter point. The contemporary heroic status of rock stars is attributed to two factors: (1) over the years, rock 'n' roll has gradually become pop music; and (2) the antiheroic protests that rock was originally identified with have become more acceptable, even institutionalized. Rock stars are a kind of "new" hero. Their link to the mass media ensures visibility and discloses their antiheroism as well. In a complex process of social typing — also involving media and various audiences — they may reinforce cultural dreams and values, suggest deviant modes of expression, or aid in the development of new cultural forms.
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