| home   authors | new | about | newsfeed | print |  
volume 2
july 1999

The economic importance of music in the European Union


  1. Recorded music
by Dave Laing
  In September 1996 the European Music Office published its report on "Music in Europe". The first part of this study, written by Dave Laing, describes the economic importance of music in the European Union. This is the first chapter of his study, treating the subject of recorded music.
1 European soundcarrier market. About half the gross revenues of the European music industry derive from the sale of sound recordings. Over 935 million units of recorded music were purchased in the fifteen countries of the European Union in 1995. Their retail value was 9.4 billion ECU's. The statistics used in table 1.1 are compiled by the national trade associations of the record industry which are affiliated to the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI).
Table 1.1: Retail sales of soundcarriers 1995 (figures in millions)
(source: IFPI)
  Singles LP's MC's CD's Retail
value (ECU)
growth (%)
Austria 3.0 0.03 2.2 16.8 310.9 +4  
Belgium 4.0 0.9 20.2 360.2 +3  
Denmark 0.5 0.02 1.0 14.1 235.7 n/a *
Finland 0.3 0.3 3.3 6.6 111.8 +7  
France 24.1 0.1 24.2 101.1 1,843.6 +8  
Germany 44.1 0.4 31.4 176.9 2,489.4 +0  
Greece 1.4 1.1 5.9 100.6 +24  
Ireland 1.0 0.01 1.7 2.4 60.9 +9  
Italy 1.4 0.1 15.1 27.8 493.9 n/a *
Netherlands 7.9 0.2 1.2 35.0 544.1 +0  
Portugal 0.1 5.1 6.6 108.8 +17  
Spain 0.9 0.3 17.9 33.6 435.2 -2  
Sweden 2.4 0.01 2.4 21.7 327.8 +7  
United Kingdom 70.7 3.6 53.4 139.2 1,981.3 +5  
Total 160.8 6.47 160.6 607.8 9,405.0 +4  
(*) no comparable figures because method of compilation has changed in 1995; (**) no separate music industry data available; Luxembourg statistics are included with Belgium
  Regarded as a single market, the European Union accounted for 30.9% by value of the total world sales of sound recordings of 31.25 billion ECU's. The United States accounted for 31%, Japan 19% and the rest of the world 22%. Among national markets, Germany was the third largest in the world, the UK was fourth, France fifth, the Netherlands eighth and Italy tenth. Spain, Belgium, Austria, Sweden and Denmark were also among the "top twenty" national markets.
  The vast majority of sales are now in the Compact Disc format. In addition to over 600 million CD albums, about half of the sales of singles in the EU (80 million units) were on CD. The first digital recording medium, the CD was developed by a European company (Philips) and a Japanese company (Sony). Since its introduction in 1982, over two billion CD's have been sold in Europe. The growing popularity of the CD has led to the virtual extinction of the vinyl LP disc which was the main format for recorded music in the 1960s and 1970s. Now, the CD is also replacing the MC a format for pre-recorded music in most European countries.
  Unit sales of CD increased by 7% in Europe in 1995. The increase was even greater in Greece and Portugal, the countries with the highest overall rate of growth in soundcarrier sales. These are among the last European countries to experience the "CD revolution". In the countries where CD has been the dominant format for recorded music for some years, record companies are seeking to maintain the rate of expansion of the national market by introducing budget priced and mid-priced CD lines, usually containing reissues of older recordings.
  While the three music album formats are either in steady decline (LP and MC) or growth (CD), the European singles market has been far more volatile in the 1990s. While it too has been affected by the arrival of CD, the singles market is also influenced by changing trends in music. The resurgence of popular dance music, created by producers from all parts of Europe, has revived the sales of singles in many European countries. Since 1991 the total EU market for singles has increased by more than 25%.
2 Other formats. In 1993, the record industry launched two competing digital audio products which were intended as replacements for the MC. These were the Mini Disc (MD) and the Digital Compact Cassette (DCC). Neither has gained a significant share of the pre-recorded music market although sales of blank MD and DCC are slowly increasing. In 1996, record companies have started to issue Enhanced CD albums which contain one track of audio-visual material in addition to the audio tracks. These E-CD's can be used with a computer's CD-ROM drive.
  The "direct delivery" of digital recordings by cable or through the Internet is under development at present. At least one European company is already offering single music recordings to consumers through the Internet while the European Commission has provided funds for a Music On Demand (MODE) project whose partners include computer and telecommunications companies.
3 Music video. There is also a European market for music videocassettes. These typically contain a concert recording or a series of "video clips" of individual songs. The music videos are part of the general video "sell through" market although their share of that market is typically below 10%. The UK is the largest national market for music video. There, 5.8 million cassettes were sold in 1995 with a retail value of ECU 52 million. [2] This was considerably larger than the German music video market which was worth ECU 12.2m in 1995. [3] The European Union market for music videos is estimated to be 10 million units with a retail value of about 100 million ECU.
Table 1.2: Album sales per capita 1995 (source: IFPI)
(in millions)
per capita (ECU)
Album units
per capita
Austria 7.9 40.6 2.4
Belgium 10.1 37.2 2.1
Denmark 5.2 46.5 2.1
Finland 5.1 22.2 2.0
France 57.7 32.7 2.2
Germany 80.8 31.9 2.6
Greece 10.4 9.7 0.8
Ireland 3.6 16.9 1.1
Italy 57.1 8.6 0.8
Netherlands 15.3 36.9 2.4
Portugal 9.9 11.0 1.2
Spain 39.1 11.1 1.3
Sweden 8.7 35.0 2.7
United Kingdom 58.0 34.9 3.4
  The citizens of the UK purchase the greatest number of music albums (3.4 per head of population) while the Danes spend the greatest amounts on recorded music (46.5 ECU's in 1995). This situation is explained by the greater sales of the cheaper-priced MC in the UK and by the high level of taxation on CD's in 1995 in Denmark. At the other end of the spectrum, Italians and Greeks purchased less than one album per head of population and the amount of cash spent on sound recordings in these countries, Spain and Portugal was less than one quarter of the spending in Denmark.
In most European countries the amount of music purchased continues to increase. In 1995, the albums per head figure grew from 0.66 to 0.8 in Greece, from 1.05 to 1.2 in Portugal and from 2.15 to 2.2 in France. However, market research in several countries has shown that up to half the population never purchase recorded music. A 1996 survey carried out for the German record industry association BPW found that 30% of consumers never buy an album and 20% buy an average of one every three years. Of the remainder, 6% of the population were responsible for half of all purchases of recorded music. [4] In Spain, 22% of households never buy recorded music while a further 45% spend less than 31 ECU's a year on music. [5] A Gallup survey in the UK in January 1996 found that men and women bought equal amounts of recorded music and that purchases of albums were split equally between those aged 34 or less and those aged 35 or more. The younger age groups purchased 62% of singles, however. [6]
4 Recorded music and other entertainment formats. Consumer spending on recorded music in Europe is greater than the amount spent on either cinema or video. Table 1.3 compares the retail value of soundcarrier sales and cinema ticket sales between 1991 and 1994. During that period, the value of music sales was more than three times greater than the value of sales of cinema tickets. Despite its strong growth over the past decade, the turnover of the European video industry is also smaller than that of Europe's recorded music industry. In 1995 the combined value of videocassette rentals and videocassette sales was 5,120 million ECU's compared with the 9,405 million ECU's spent on soundcarriers.
Table 1.3: Soundcarrier and cinema markets in the EU 1991-1994 (in millions of ECU) (source: Screen Digest)
  1991 1992 1993 1994
Recorded Music 7,784 7,795 (0) 8,436 (+8) 8,984 (+6)
Cinema 2,533 2,827 (+12) 2,665 (-6) 2,897 (+9)
  According to statistics compiled by Screen Digest, recorded music accounts for the majority of consumer spending on all forms of audio and audio-visual entertainment in the member states of the European Union (the table does not include licence payments to public broadcasters). Table 1.4 shows that the proportion of spending on music ranges from 65% in Austria to 30% in Italy. In all EU countries apart from Italy, Ireland and Spain spending on recorded music was greater than spending on cinema and video combined. However, the arrival of new entertainment formats such as pay-television and interactive products such as CD-ROM's and video games cartridges is having an impact on the share of entertainment spending of both video and audio. In France and Spain, where pay-television spending in over 20% of the total, spending on audio products is now under 40%. The European market for multimedia entertainment software is also growing rapidly. Spending on these products was reported by Screen Digest to be 1.22 billion ECU's in 1995. This is equivalent to 14% of spending on recorded music and 24% of spending on video.
Table 1.4: Consumer spending on audio and audio-visual entertainment 1994 (%) (source: Screen Digest)
  Audio Cinema Video Pay TV Interactive
Austria 65 15 18 2 n/a
Belgium 48 13 29 7 3
Denmark 55 13 25 7 n/a
Finland 51 18 23 8 n/a
France 36 14 21 26 4
Germany 60 13 18 4 4
Greece n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Ireland 34 22 44 n/a n/a
Italy 30 28 28 9 4
Netherlands 60 10 21 6 3
Portugal n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Spain 33 20 24 17 5
Sweden 43 15 21 20 n/a
United Kingdom 40 11 29 15 4
5 Record companies. Within the European Union there are over 3,000 companies issuing music recordings to the public. Each year, over 25,000 different recordings are made available to consumers. The number of titles issued ranges from about 2,000 in Greece and Finland to over 15,000 in Germany.
Many of these albums are of music from outside Europe, notably from North America. However, a substantial number are created within Europe. In the Netherlands, for example, about 900 albums of Dutch music were issued in 1995, 9% of the total distributed on the Dutch market. [7] 3,473 Titles recorded in Finland were issued in 1992. Of these, 501 were CD albums and 1,651 music cassettes. Allowing for the release of the same music in both soundcarrier formats, over 1,000 albums of Finnish music were issued. [8] However, these Dutch and Finnish statistics do not distinguish between those albums which contained newly recorded music and those which contained older recordings reissued in the CD format.
Although the available industry statistics do not generally provide information on the numbers of new European recordings issued each year, in France the six largest record companies have pledged to issue some 350 new albums by French performers in 1996. [9] In addition, there will be a larger number of new recordings issued by small companies specializing in "niche" areas such as classical music, traditional music and jazz.
Table 1.5: The European record industry 1995 (sources: EMO, Media Research Publishing Co, Finnish Ministry of Education, estimates)
  Record companies Album releases CD factories Employees
Austria 70 n/a 3 1,000
Belgium 45 n/a 2 1,000
Denmark 39 n/a 2 900
Finland 30 2,000 1 600
France 400 n/a 9 8,000
Germany 1,000 15,000 21 11,000
Greece 120 2,350 2 700
Ireland 84 n/a 3 500
Italy 128 n/a 7 3,000
Netherlands 170 10,100 10 2,600
Portugal 20 n/a 1 500
Spain 70 n/a 5 1,600
Sweden 50 n/a 3 1,600
United Kingdom 1,000 13,550 16 12,000
Totals 3,182 n/a 85 45,000
Statistics from the US and the Netherlands show that these areas of music and the smaller companies are generally responsible for a majority of titles issued. Thus, while classical music accounts for less than 10% of sales in the Netherlands, 29% of album releases in 1995 contained classical music. [10] A survey of the US soundcarrier market found that in 1995 the biggest six music distributors issued only one-third (5,850) of the 17,124 current titles selling more than 100 copies although the large companies were responsible for more than 80% of all recorded music sales. [11] The importance of the many hundreds of smaller "independent" companies is their commitment to maintaining diversity in the music market by issuing recordings that would be uneconomic for the large companies to handle.
  Using the US and Dutch statistics as a guide, the number of new recordings made in France is likely to be more than 1,000 in 1996 while there will be at least 300 albums of new Finnish music. On the assumption that a similar proportion of new recordings are issued in other EU countries, the total European output of new recordings will be over 5,000 albums per year.
6 The major record companies. The six largest record companies in Europe are responsible for distributing and marketing about three-quarters of all CD's and cassettes sold in the member states of the European Union. Three of these companies are based in the European Union. They are BMG, a division of the Bertelsmann media company of Germany, EMI Music which has its headquarters in the UK and Polygram whose majority shareholder is the Dutch electronics company Philips. The other three majors are subsidiaries of companies based in Japan (Sony Music), the United States (Warner Music International) and Canada (MCA ).
The combined market share of these six companies ranges from 66% in the Netherlands to over 80% in Italy, Finland and France. [12] Despite the dominant position of the six companies, many hundreds of smaller, European-owned record companies are operating successfully. This is because the major companies find it uneconomic to produce recordings of many musical genres with relatively small audiences but also because the cost of making a sound recording is relatively low compared with the production costs of a film or television programme. Although certain pop musicians can spend many weeks and many millions of ECU's in creating an album of twelve songs, it is also possible to produce an album for a few thousand ECU's in one of Europe's several thousand recording studios or by using portable recording equipment.
7 Manufacturing. Europe now has over 80 plants manufacturing CD's and other optical disc products such as CD-ROM and Laserdisc. Some of these are owned by the major record companies which supply their national subsidiaries throughout Europe from a central factory and distribution centre. However, most of the CD factories are owned by entrepreneurs who manufacture discs for the independent sector of the recorded music industry. European companies are also in the forefront of the manufacture of CD production equipment.
  Although the European demand for cassette tapes continues to fall, there are still a large number of small cassette duplication companies within the European Union as well as a few plants which specialize in the manufacture of vinyl discs.
8 Employment. The combined employment in all sectors of the European recording business is estimated to be 45,000 (see table 1.5). CD manufacture and music recording are relatively capital-intensive industries (the EMI CD plant at Swindon in the UK has a capacity of 90 million units per year but has only 210 staff, [13] and the number of people employed in manufacturing in Europe is estimated to be about 10,000. Although full statistics are not available, Europe's recording studios probably provide a similar number of jobs. Ireland, one of the EU's smaller members, has as many as 87 recording studios. [14] The numbers of record company administrative and distribution staff are even larger. According to data included in a recent survey, the number of employees of larger companies in the UK record industry is almost 9,000. [15] The survey did not include most of the UK's recording studios and manufacturing plants.
  The production and sale of sound recordings also provides fees and royalties for European musicians and composers. Several thousand musicians are principally employed as "session" players, accompanying singers and soloists when recordings are made. The featured musicians on popular music recordings receive a royalty based on the retail price of the album or single. The royalty rates are negotiated individually and they can range from 10% or 12% for a new artist to 20% for a pop music superstar. However, these rates are subject to deductions for such items as packaging and the royalty paid to the studio producer. The gross royalty rates for most classical performers and orchestras tend to be lower and a high proportion of albums sold in Europe (between 25% and 30%) consists of older recordings for which artists are often paid the lower royalty rates prevalent in the 1950s and 1960s. Taking these factors into account, the net royalties paid to recording artists and studio producers for sales in the European Union in 1995 was probably about 700 million ECU's. The total amount of the mechanical royalty payments made to authors collection societies by the European record industry in 1995 was about 600 million ECU's.
9 Retailing. Europe has over 7,000 specialist retailers of CD and cassette, but these are facing increasing price competition from supermarkets and hypermarkets. The numbers of specialist stores has halved in Portugal in the past few years while France's now has only 500 specialist stores compared with 3,000 in 1972. [16] The market shares of the specialists range from over 60% in countries where the hypermarket phenomenon is not yet fully developed to between 30% and 40% in Finland and Germany. The category of specialist stores includes both small local shops and national chains like those of HMV in the UK which has 95 stores and Free Record Shop of the Netherlands with 113 branches. The number of jobs in recorded music retailing was estimated by IFPI to be 80,000 in 1994.
  Despite the existence of the single European market, there is less pan-European retailing of recorded music than might have been expected. The most important international retailers are Richard Branson's Virgin group and FNAC, the French cultural products chain. The Virgin Records chain has stores in Austria, Belgium, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Portugal (in the UK and Ireland, the Virgin retail brand is controlled by the general retailer W.H.Smith).
Table 1.6: Soundcarrier retailing by type of outlet 1995 (sources: EMO, BPI, Financial Times Music & Copyright)
  Specialists Supermarkets etc. Mail order Other
Austria 150 (n/a) n/a   n/a   n/a  
Belgium n/a (80) n/a (14) n/a   n/a (6)
Denmark 600 (n/a) n/a   n/a (5) n/a  
Finland 105 (30) 380 (45) 3 (15) 2,000 (10)
France 500 (42) 3,000 (53) n/a (5) n/a  
Germany 1,000 (39) n/a (38) n/a (17) n/a (6)
Greece 400 (60) n/a   n/a   n/a (35)
Ireland 115   n/a   n/a   n/a  
Italy 600 (54) 2,500 (21) n/a (7) 33,000 (18)
Netherlands 1,348 (55) 70 (19) 6 (12) n/a (14)
Portugal 125 (n/a) 50 (n/a) 2 (n/a) n/a  
Spain 600 (35) 230 (60) n/a (5) n/a  
Sweden 300 (45) 100 (45) n/a (10) n/a  
United Kingdom 1,735 (48) 2,418 (38) 6 (12) 400 (2)
(figures in brackets are the percentage of sales taken by each category)
  In addition to its 50 French stores, the FNAC group has stores in Belgium, Germany and Spain. At the national level, Europe's most important retailers of recorded music include the Spanish department store group Cortes Ingles, Valentim de Carvalho in Portugal, WOM (Germany), HMV (UK) and Ricordi (Italy).
  The purchase of soundcarriers by mail order, often through membership of a record club, is an increasingly important phenomenon. Mail order is most highly developed in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK where this form of retailing has over 10% of sales. Among the principal European mail order companies are Bertelsmann (parent company of BMG Entertainment) and Polygram. A consortium including Warner Music, Sony Music Entertainment and Polygram has plans to launch a series of new mail order clubs across Europe.
10 Value added tax. During 1995-6, value added tax (VAT) rates on soundcarriers were increased in four countries: Belgium, France, Portugal and Spain. In Denmark, however, the 15% luxury goods tax on CD's was abolished at the end of 1995 and subsequently sales have increased dramatically.
Table 1.7: Value added tax rates for soundcarriers and books (%) (source: IFPI)
  Soundcarriers Books
Austria 20.0 10.0
Belgium 21.0 6.0
Denmark 25.0 12.0
Finland 22.0 0.0
France 20.6 5.5
Germany 15.0 7.0
Greece 18.0 4.0
Ireland 21.0 0.0
Italy 16.0 4.0
Luxembourg 15.0 3.0
Netherlands 17.5 6.0
Portugal 17.0 5.0
Spain 16.0 4.0
Sweden 25.0 25.0
United Kingdom 17.5 0.0
  Table 1.7 shows that in almost every country the tax levied on recorded music is considerably higher than that on books. The European Commission is committed to devising a scheme to harmonize VAT rates in two bands. The music industry is arguing that recorded music should receive the same treatment as books and other cultural goods and be taxed at the lower rate.
11 National sales by genre and national origin. IFPI publishes annual details of the origins of the recorded music sold in each European country. However, the IFPI statistics include only one figure for all "international popular" music. In table 1.8 an estimate has been made of the amount of international music originating in the EU based on chart and other sales information.
Table 1.8: Soundcarrier sales by genre and origin 1995 (%) (sources: IFPI, estimates)
  National popular Other EU popular Rest of world Classical All EU popular
Austria 10 45 37 8 55
Belgium 14 48 30 8 62
Denmark 30 n/a n/a 5 n/a
Finland 46 25 20 9 71
France 47 20 25 8 67
Germany 35 22 34 9 57
Greece 56 20 20 4 76
Ireland 16 n/a n/a 4 n/a
Italy 49 21 31 9 70
Netherlands 23 39 27 11 62
Portugal 21 44 30 5 65
Spain 32 n/a n/a 8 n/a
Sweden 28 n/a n/a 5 n/a
United Kingdom 51 8 34 7 59
  Table 1.8 shows that the amount of EU-originated recorded music in each country (including that country's own productions) ranges from 55% in Austria and 59% in the UK and Germany to over 70% in Finland and Greece. These figures support IFPI's own recent calculation that some 60% of music recordings sold in the EU originate in EU member states. The figure may in fact be greater since no calculation has been made of the proportion of classical music sales which originate in EU countries.
  However, classical music remains a small amount in the total sales of recorded music. Despite attempts to "popularize" classical music through such events as the Three Tenors concerts and through the promotion of compilation albums of famous pieces, classical sales remain at less than 10% in all EU countries except the Netherlands.
Table 1.9: National origins of pan-European hits 1995 (source: Music & Media)
  Singles   Albums
Austria 0   0
Belgium 0   1
Denmark 3   1
Finland 0   0
France 5 ? 5
Germany 7 ? 10
Greece 0   0
Ireland 3   2
Italy 3 ? 7
Netherlands 3 ? 1
Portugal 0   0
Spain ?   1
Sweden 3   2
United Kingdom 16   27
United States 21   35
Canada 3   2
Total 100   100
12 Anglophone music in Europe. The figures in table 1.8 do not reflect the fact that a very high proportion of the "other EU" popular music sold in Europe comes from one country, the United Kingdom. An analysis of the Top 100 lists of best-selling singles and albums in Europe published by the magazine Music & Media shows that recordings produced in the UK accounted for 27 of the hit albums and 16 of the hit singles in 1995. The Anglophone "bloc" of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States and Canada had 66 of the Top 100 albums and 42 (?) of the Top 100 singles. The difference between the performance of singles and albums from Anglophone countries is due to the strength of new dance music styles emanating from many other European Union countries. As table 1.9 shows, countries such as Sweden, Germany and Italy provided significant numbers of best-selling singles in 1995.
Some music industry experts and organizations emphasis the language used for song lyrics in discussions about the national character of popular music. In non-Anglophone countries some pop and rock musicians use English in their work in preference to their first language. The only available statistics on this aspect of European music come from Germany. In 1994, Media Control reported that 23.5% of hit albums were by individual German singers or groups. Of these 15% included German-language lyrics and 8.5% non-German lyrics. Over 38% of the 1994 hit singles were by German artists. Of these almost 30% included lyrics in English or another non-German language. Only 8.5% contained German language lyrics. [17]
13 Music piracy. The production, importation and distribution of unauthorized copies of sound recordings remains a serious problem in several European Union countries. In 1995 IFPI estimated that sales of these pirate cassettes and discs had a retail value of 361 million ECU's, or almost 4% of all soundcarrier sales (see table 1.10). The pirate market is largest in Italy where one-third of all albums sold are unauthorized and in Greece where the value of pirate sales is almost 20% of the value of the total recorded music market. These figures help to explain why Italians and Greeks spend so little per head of population on the products of the legitimate record industry compared with other EU citizens (see table 1.2).
Table 1.10: Soundcarrier piracy 1995 (in millions of units) (source: IFPI)
  MC % of total CD % of total Value
(millions of ECU)
% of total
Austria 0.03 1 0.32 2 2.8 1
Belgium 0.04 5 0.94 4 13.6 4
Denmark 0.05 5 0.11 1 2.7 1
Finland 0.14 4 0.07 1 2.0 2
France 0.9 4 3.0 3 46.1 2
Germany 2.6 8 3.4 2 72.6 3
Greece 2.0 65 1.0 15 24.6 19
Ireland 0.25 13 0.0 0 1.3 2
Italy 15.0 50 5.5 16 114.6 20
Netherlands 0.1 8 2.6 7 33.7 6
Portugal 0.02 0.4 0.02 0.3 0.4 0.4
Spain 0.54 3 0.55 2 5.5 1
Sweden 0.06 3 0.61 3 10.4 3
United Kingdom 1.3 2 1.9 1 30.6 1
Total 23.03 13 19.03 3 360.9 4
  The recent harmonization of copyright laws throughout the EU is expected to have a positive effect on piracy. However, the problem has been made worse by the growth in exports of pirate CD's and MC's from factories sited in the new democracies of Eastern Europe. The music industry continues to spend millions of ECU's on campaigns to eradicate piracy.
2. BPI Statistical Handbook 1996. London: British Phonographic Industry, 1996. Return to text
3. Phonographische Wirtschaft Jahrbuch 1995. Starnberg: Josef Keller, 1996. Return to text
4. Music Business International, London, June 1996. Return to text
5. Cultura en cifras, Coleccion Datos Culturales 5. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, 1996. Return to text
6. BPI Statistical Handbook 1996. op. cit. Return to text
7. NVPI statistics. Eindhoven, 1996. Return to text
8. Cultural Policy in Finland. Helsinki: Ministry of Education, 1994. Return to text
9. Financial Times Music & Copyright, no 84, London, 1996. Return to text
10. NVPI statistics. op. cit. Return to text
11. Billboard, May 18, New York, 1996. Return to text
12. Financial Times Music & Copyright, no. 89, London, 1996. Return to text
13. One to One, January, London, 1996. Return to text
14. Irish Music Industry Directory, Dublin, 1996. Return to text
15. Dane, Cliff (1996), The UK Record Industry Annual Survey. Weston Super Mare, 1996. Return to text
16. SNEP brochure, Paris, 1996. Return to text
17. Phonographische Wirtschaft Jahrbuch 96. op. cit. Return to text
  1999 © Soundscapes